Saturday, February 14, 2015

Greece, now and then

Article 50 of the Consolidated Treaty on European Union:
1. Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements.

2. A Member State which decides to withdraw shall notify the European Council of its intention. In the light of the guidelines provided by the European Council, the Union shall negotiate and conclude an agreement with that State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the Union. That agreement shall be negotiated in accordance with Article 218(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. It shall be concluded on behalf of the Union by the Council, acting by a qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament.

3. The Treaties shall cease to apply to the State in question from the date of entry into force of the withdrawal agreement or, failing that, two years after the notification referred to in paragraph 2, unless the European Council, in agreement with the Member State concerned, unanimously decides to extend this period.

4. For the purposes of paragraphs 2 and 3, the member of the European Council or of the Council representing the withdrawing Member State shall not participate in the discussions of the European Council or Council or in decisions concerning it.

A qualified majority shall be defined in accordance with Article 238(3)(b) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.

5. If a State which has withdrawn from the Union asks to rejoin, its request shall be subject to the procedure referred to in Article 49.

Here are three points made by Article 50:

--> The EU shall set out the arrangements for a member state's withdrawal

--> The withdrawal agreement shall be negotiated by the Council, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament. In other words, if the Parliament does not consent, there can be no withdrawal agreement and evidently no withdrawal.

--> "The Treaties shall cease to apply to the State in question" -- that is, the withdrawing state is no longer a member of the EU -- as soon as the withdrawal agreement takes effect, or, "failing that", two years after the state notifies the union of its intent to withdraw, unless the European Council decides to extend this period.

Wikipedia, Delian League:

Encarta 96, Delian League:
Delian League, federation of city-states of ancient Greece, whose main purpose at the time was to prepare against a possible renewal of aggression by Persia. The league, sometimes called Confederation of Delos, was founded in 478 BC after the failure of a Persian attempt to invade Greece. Because it appeared probable that Persian aggression might come by sea rather than by land, Athens, as the greatest sea power in Greece, became the leading member of the league.

The confederation had its headquarters on the island of Delos, and each of the member states, which at one time numbered more than 200, made a contribution in manpower and equipment in proportion to its resources. As time passed, fewer of the allies in the league contributed men and ships, most of them substituting money payments, which became in effect tribute to Athens. As this trend continued, the program of the league gradually changed from one of defense against Persia to that of strengthening Athens. When several members were restrained by force from seceding, the alliance of sovereign states was transformed into what modern scholars call the Athenian Empire.

Wikipedia, Greco-Persian Wars
The allies of Athens were not released from their obligations to provide either money or ships, despite the cessation of hostilities.

H.G. Wells, The Outline of History:
And it was chiefly the poorer citizens of Athens who sustained this empire by their most vigorous and incessant personal service. Every citizen was liable to military service at home or abroad between the ages of eighteen and sixty, sometimes on purely Athenian affairs and sometimes in defence of the cities of the Empire whose citizens had bought themselves off.

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